Category Archives: Trout and Salmon

Wild Trout Flourish in Southwestern Virginia

Wild trout flourish in Southwestern Virginia, a unique fact considering it is one of the lowest elevations and eastern-most points on the continent where this occurs. That fact, and the pristine Blue Ridge Mountains that define the area geologically, combine to create a fisherman’s paradise.

The clean, cold Dan River welcomes fly fishing. Part of the Roanoke River system, it flows over 200 miles and crosses the Virginia and North Carolina border in eight places. The headwaters of the Dan are in Meadows of Dan, a mountain valley about 45 miles north of Winston-Salem, N.C.

The Dan begins north of U.S. Highway 58 and slightly northeast of the Meadows of Dan in mountainous Patrick County, at an elevation of over 3,000 feet. In this section of the river anglers will find fishing for native brook trout in waters classified as wild trout waters by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. Brookies require clean, cold water to survive, far more so than rainbows and browns, and their presence here is indicative of the quality of the flow.

Just above and below U. S. Highway 58 the river is a put-and-take trout stream – Category B, in Virginia’s classification system. Traveling farther east, the river flows through a deep gorge within the Pinnacles Hydroelectric Project owned by the City of Danville.

This area has been dubbed the Grand Canyon of Virginia, rugged and spectacular country that appeals to the hardy. Trout fishing becomes first class for rainbow and brown trout in the six-mile section between Talbott Dam and Townes Reservoir. The stream from Townes Dam to the Pinnacles Powerhouse has been designated as catch-and-release trout water, and it holds some big fish. From the powerhouse several miles downstream (Kibler Valley) is a popular Category A put-and-take trout stream.

A 6-mile stretch of the Dan runs through Primland, a boutique resort covering some 12,000 acres of wooded mountains. The property is rugged, remote, and beautiful. Two impoundments are adjacent and provide hydroelectric power for the city of Danville. Below the dam is designated as a Special Regulations Trout Water, meaning there is a reproducing population of wild born fish throughout that section. Brown, brook and rainbow trout are found here. A small section of the Smith River below Philpott Dam also has a thriving population of wild fish.

Fisherman can expect year-round action with the best fishing occurring in spring and fall. Hatches of mayfly, caddis and stonefly happen every month and anglers can expect dry fly or surface action any time of year. It never hurts to carry some bead head nymphs and all-around fish catchers like the San Juan worm in sizes 12 to 16. A 5-weight rod 8 to 9 feet long works fine. A pair of waders will be welcomed. Even though you’re in the South here, the water is cold year around.

Primland is a massive mountain resort property larger than many wildlife management areas (and probably has more deer and turkey than many–guided hunts are offered in season.) It’s located about 40 miles north-northwest of Winston Salem, N.C.  The resort, recently re-opened after the COVID-19 shutdown, also offers guided fly fishing on a catch-and-release basis, golf, paddle-sports, mountain biking–all the good stuff.

For fly casters seeking less challenging Blue Ridge Mountain fishing, the broader and more forgiving Kibler Valley section of the Dan River is located nearby. Guided fishing with local Orvis pro’s is available April through November depending on weather and stream conditions–as everywhere in trout country, too much rain or runoff makes for tough going.

The Orvis-trained guides not only provide guided fishing trips they also offer fly casting and fly-fishing lessons. There’s an Orvis Dealer Pro Shop on the property, stocked with a large selection of flies and all the other goodies fly fishers love. They also rent Orvis rods and sell fishing licenses at the shop.

For other fishing options, there are three ponds at Primland stocked with trout, bass and channel catfish and open year-round. Fish cleaning is available for the put and take fish in these ponds, so anglers can cook their catch at their Mountain Homes, one of several lodging options at the resort. For details, visit www.primland.com.

What Are First Ice Trout and How To Catch Them

First Ice Trout

from the Fishing Wire

First ice is a magical time to pursue many species of gamefish, and members of the trout family are no exception. Just ask veteran trout and salmon guide Bernie Keefe, who plies the high-country lakes around Granby, Colorado.

“Rainbows, brookies and browns are all hungry right now,” he says. “The spawn is over and trout are feeding up before the winter crunch settles in.”

As a bonus, a lack of fishing pressure in recent months often has trout at ease. “Nobody’s fished them for awhile, so they’re ‘dumbed down’ a little bit compared to the rest of the year,” he laughs.

Keefe targets skinny water in early winter, where trout pursue crayfish, baitfish and other sizeable sources of sustenance. “They eat insects, too, of course,” he concedes. “But trout have big appetites this time of year and prefer larger forage when they can get it.”

He focuses on depths of four to seven feet, especially where bottom transitions sweeten the pot. “Changes from rock to sand or muck can be trout magnets,” he offers. “And green weeds can be a plus where available.”

On the flip side, vertical inclines are out. “Forget steep drop-offs,” he says. “Gentle slopes and flats in the backs of bays or alongside points are ideal.”

When he finds a promising fishing area, Keefe quickly pops a trio of holes and sets up shop. “I drill two holes 30 inches apart, which allow me to fish two lines,” he explains. “Then I add a third hole in between, so I can sight-fish both outer holes simultaneously.”

To maximize comfort and manual dexterity while fishing, he pops a Clam portable shelter over the work zone and fires up a Mr. Heater to ward off the chill. “I like fishing without gloves for better feel, as well as the ability to quickly unhook fish, rebait hooks and retie lines,” he says.

In one hole, Keefe drops a flashy attractor lure like an 1/8-ounce Clam Leech Flutter Spoon. In the other, he deploys a more subtle presentation, such as Clam’s tungsten Caviar Drop Jig. Spoons are often fished without tippings, but traditional jigs are tricked out wit
h a small soft-plastic or live bait dressing. “Berkley Gulp! and Maki Plastics work very well,” he says. “Mealworms and waxies are always good choices if you like live bait.”

Spoons are fished with flair. “Give the spoon a 6- to 8-inch lift, then let it flutter back down,” he says. “Dance it in place, pause and repeat the process. When you see a trout rush in, kill the theatrics. Most fish prefer to crush it on the pause.”

Keefe cautions to keep your spoon performances well grounded. “You don’t have to pound the rocks or stir the mud, but always keep the spoon within a foot of the bottom,” he says.

Jigs are fished with a slower hand, tighter to bottom. “Jigs like the Caviar Drop Jig imitate fish eggs, which don’t jump around a whole lot,” he says. “But you have to add a little movement to get trout’s attention. I favor slow, methodical, 1-inch lift-and-drops, but nervous shakes also have their moments. With either approach, keep the jig within an inch of the bottom.”

Whether jigging or spooning, Keefe wields a 28-inch, medium-light Jason Mitchell Meat Stick ice rod, which he says offers a great balance between strength and sensitivity. “The high-vis tip also makes it easy to see light bites when you can’t see the lure,” he adds, noting that 4-pound Berkley Trilene 100 Percent Fluorocarbon is his line of choice.

Since trout are on the bite, Keefe rarely lingers in an unproductive area. “If you don’t get bit within 10 minutes, move,” he says.

Most days, the bulk of the action comes early in the day. “Under clear skies, it’s usually over by the time the sun hits the ice,” he says. “But it’s a great way to spend a morning. And cloudy conditions can prolong the action until noon or later.”

Keefe says the first-ice flurry usually lasts around three to four weeks, depending on fishing pressure. “When crowds move in, trout slide out to deeper haunts,” he says. “They’re still catchable, but the early season magic is over for another winter.”

The Clam Outdoors “Caviar Drop” jig is an excellent first and last ice trout jig. Watch Bernie’s video to learn more.

For more information or to book a trip with Keefe, visit: www.fishingwithbernie.com or call (970) 531-2318.

Hatchery Fish Often Fail in the Wild. Now We Might Know Why

Epigenetics explained, with help from ’80s pop.

by Amorina Kingdon, Hakai Magazine 

from The Fishing Wire

Wild salmon are struggling to get their groove back. Along North America’s Pacific coast, salmon populations—already hit by overfishing—have been forced to dodge the Blob and hungry seals. For years, Canada has tried to help bolster the salmon population by releasing hatchery-raised juvenile fish, or smolts, into the wild.

Scientists know these hatchery smolts don’t do well in the wild—the fish tend to die younger than their wild brethren and reproduce less, but it’s unclear why.

In a recent study, however, researchers think they’ve hit upon a possible explanation. In two British Columbia streams, researchers caught coho salmon smolts that were making their way out to sea for the first time. Some of the fish had been born in hatcheries, while others were wild. Comparing the genetics of the hatchery- and wild-born smolts, the scientists found a huge difference between the two populations. But the changes weren’t so much in their genetics as in how their genes were regulated and expressed—their epigenetics.

Epigenetics is the physical and molecular processes that control how the instructions contained within DNA get expressed or turned into the proteins that affect day-to-day life. Often, epigenetics causes a gene to be expressed more or less frequently than it otherwise would. Everything from stress to chemicals to natural processes like puberty can cause epigenetic changes. Some of the changes are temporary or reversible, while others last forever.

Suppose, for instance, that rather than a jumble of folded proteins, your DNA is a cassette tape of Phil Collins’s 1985 smash album No Jacket Required. When you were born, your DNA was a factory-made tape—you had the same physical spool of tape, more or less, as 13 million other fans.

But say a section of your tape was kinked or twisted after unspooling in the stereo of your Trans Am, garbling the classic riffs of “Sussudio.” Meanwhile, your brother can rock out to “Sussudio” just fine, but he accidentally erased the sultry chorus of “Inside Out” while making a mixtape for his girlfriend. Much like these changes will affect which of Collins’s epic rhythms you and your brother respectively blast, epigenetics can permanently or semipermanently affect how genes get expressed.

In the case of the salmon, Louis Bernatchez, a population biologist at Laval University who worked on the new research, found that while hatchery- and wild-born coho smolts have similar genetic profiles—which makes sense since the two are closely related—some parts of their DNA have wildly different epigenetics. But more than this, Bernatchez found that all the hatchery-raised fish had similar epigenetic changes, even for fish reared at different hatcheries.

Just as two different cassettes chewed up in the same spot of “One More Night” suggest an issue with the tape deck, Bernatchez suspected there’s something about hatchery life that triggers epigenetic changes. He points to two features as possible suspects: atypical food and overcrowding.

“Some of those genes are important in appetite, important in osmoregulation,” Bernatchez says. He stresses that these epigenetic effects don’t necessarily explain hatchery fish’s shortcomings as adults. In part, that’s because it’s still not completely clear which traits they affect, or how long the changes last. But it does open new avenues to explore.Hatchery-born coho salmon smolts have epigenetic changes as a result of hatchery living, which may affect them for life. Photo by Stock Connection Blue/Alamy Stock Photo

In Washington State, hatchery-spawned steelhead also do poorly in the wild. But Penny Swanson, division director of the Northwest Fisheries Science Center, says that while epigenetics may play a part, there are other factors that could account for hatchery fish’s struggles.

For example, fish that do well in hatcheries often have voracious appetites and grow quickly, she says. This serves them well in captivity, but not in the wild, where searching for food and enduring hunger are more important. But it’s not clear if hatchery conditions lead to a form of artificial selection, where the quickest gobblers survive, or if the food, temperature, or relatively sedentary lifestyle are modifying the fish’s genes through epigenetic effects.

Swanson thinks Bernatchez’s research lays important groundwork for untangling the different factors, but there’s still a lot to study, such as epigenetics in fish at different ages. This is tricky to do with wild populations, she says, in comparison to the captive or domestic animals on which most epigenetics research is done, because the natural genetic variation is much wider and less understood.

Mackenzie Gavery, a post-doctorate researcher working with Swanson, agrees that it’s a leap to suggest the epigenetic changes seen in smolts are affecting their success as adults. There’s a big gap in time between when smolts head out to sea and when they return to breed as adults, she says. Gavery also notes that many epigenetic changes are natural, transient, and even reversible. Like straightening a twisted cassette ribbon by rewinding it with a pencil, epigenetic changes in the smolts may be gone by the time they return to spawn.

Bernatchez hopes that further study will untangle how persistent the epigenetic changes are, as well as make it clearer how they’re manifesting in the fish. But it’s a new field, and the researchers still have a long long way to go.

Read more like this in Hakai Magazine here:

Is Trout Fishing in Washington’s High Lakes A Good Trip?

from The Fishing Wir

High lakes trout fishing is one of Washington’s premier recreational pastimes. Geology pressed its thumb into some of the state’s most gorgeous places when it laid in the alpine lakes. Trails into remote mountain potholes wander across flowered meadows and pass through shady forests of cedar, fir and hemlock. At trail’s end, trout grow plump on mayflies, midges and other minute delectables.

Western Washington has about 1,600 lakes that are considered “high” lakes, above 2,500 feet elevation. East of the Cascades, nearly 950 lakes lie above 3,500 feet, which qualifies them as high lakes. A small percentage of our high lakes have self-sustaining trout populations, while others are stocked periodically with a variety of trout species. Still others are purposely left barren.

Some lakes are stocked every two or three years, while others may be stocked only once in a decade, dictated by average fishing pressure and lake productivity. These rotating stocking schedules cause a lake’s trout abundance and size to vary from year to year. Finding the season’s hot spots is part of the fun: topographical maps, good hiking equipment and a willingness to get out and explore are as important to high lakes angling success as the right terminal tackle.

The “Leave No Trace” Ethic

Special alpine etiquette is mandatory for these mountain adventures. With approximately 100,000 anglers and a million hikers roaming Washington’s high country each season, care must be taken to minimize human impact. Alpine meadows and shorelines are often extremely delicate. Ill-planned camps or focused foot traffic on fragile near-shore vegetation can easily leave near-permanent scars. Wilderness resource users must educate themselves on the simple, but essential, principles of no-trace camping and hiking. The U.S. Forest and National Park Services offer several excellent brochures on this subject; pick one up at your local USFS Ranger Station or Park Service district office.

Alpine fish populations are often equally fragile. Thoughtful anglers practice catch-and-release fishing (see “Tips for Successful Catch-and-Release Fishing”), keeping just one or two for the pan and releasing the rest for others to enjoy. Often, it’s a long way back to the car on a warm summer day and the fish may spoil on the way out. What would have been a delicious meal in camp or a larger fighting fish for another angler is no better than garden fertilizer by the time you get home.

Although fish entrails are biodegradable, a respectful alpine angler will never discard them in lake shallows where they can be seen by others. Pack out viscera in a zip-lock bag, or dispose of them in water at least 25′ deep. Never bury or try to burn fish parts near the lake; the remains may attract sharp-nosed bears. Burial at least 100 yards away from the lake, trail or camps is an acceptable alternative.

Please remember the following tips for responsible use of our back-country:

  • Take the time to learn both fishing and land-use regulations for the area you plan to visit.
  • Pack out everything you pack in; if possible, take out any litter from less-thoughtful hikers or anglers.
  • Maintain water quality by keeping human waste and waste water away from lakes and streams. If possible, camp at least 200 feet from the nearest lake or stream.
  • Where campfires are legal and safe, use an established fire ring and only dead and downed wood.
  • Pack out the offal from any fish kept, or dispose of it in a manner that will not attract wildlife or harm the aesthetics of the area.
  • Be mindful of damaging fragile vegetation, both along the shoreline and in campsites.

The Fish and Fishery

Most fish stocked in our high lakes are rainbow, cutthroat or eastern brook trout. (“Brookies” are not a true trout, but actually belong to the char genus.) Other trout or char that can be found in some lakes include brown trout, mackinaw or lake trout (another char) and bull trout/Dolly Varden (also char). A few lakes have been stocked with golden trout, Kamloops-strain rainbows, Montana black-spot (a cutthroat sub-species) and Atlantic salmon.

The primary rainbow stock used is Mt. Whitney, of California origin. Cutthroat plants include several varieties: coastal (mostly on the west side of the Cascades), westslope (stock from Twin Lakes near Leavenworth), and Tokul Creek (from the hatchery of the same name near Snoqualmie, and originally from Lake Whatcom).

The Department of Fish and Wildlife continues a long tradition of fish stocking that began around the turn of the century when miners, loggers, woodsmen and the U.S. Forest Service transported fish to lakes in buckets and large milk cans by horse or mule. Stocking became more systematic in the late 1920’s when county governments began managing game fish and wildlife, and has continued essentially without interruption since the Department of Game was created in 1933 (since changed to Department of Wildlife in 1985, and to Department of Fish and Wildlife in 1994).

The stocking program has come a long way from the milk can days. The department now uses airplanes and helicopters to stock up to 20,000 fry at a time in the large, more heavily-used lakes. It’s not all high tech, however. A large percentage of all fry stocked are carried to the lakes on foot, and hand-stocked by groups such as the Seattle-based Trail Blazers or various Backcountry Horsemen of Washington chapters. Considerable effort is spent on accuracy and precision in maintaining the “put-grow-and-take” recreational fishery in order to ensure that these more sensitive aquatic ecosystems are not overtaxed.

Not all high lakes are maintained with fish populations. Many are left fishless to avoid impacts on the aquatic communities found in naturally fishless lakes or tarns. Many of these lakes contain invertebrate and amphibian populations that serve as genetic reservoirs throughout Washington’s subalpine and alpine ecosystems. Fish do not eliminate these species, but they can alter numbers. Thus many lakes are preserved as sites for scientific and educational purposes.

Although there is natural reproduction in some high lakes, most do not have the right conditions for a self-sustaining population. Besides correct timing of sexual maturity, most trout species need inlet or outlet streams that flow over gravel, year-round. This is an advantage for managing a quality high lakes fishery, as fish densities can be controlled by limited stocking numbers and frequencies, resulting in maximum growth to the lake’s potential.

Eastern brook trout and some strains of cutthroat and rainbow are more adaptable and prolific in their spawning habits, sometimes using springs or upwellings. A number of northern and western Cascade lakes have excessive, stunted populations of brookies or westslope cutthroat. Some of these lakes have management regulations that provide for more liberal harvest; others are stocked with predator species to bring these populations under control.

Since attractive, fishable populations can be maintained in most high lakes by stocking small fry infrequently, and at light densities, the high lake recreational fishery is one of the most cost-effective fisheries managed by WDFW.

Regulations allow fishing year-around in nearly all high lakes. (Note: As a general rule, lakes are considered “high” when over 2,500 feet in Western Washington or 3,500 feet in Eastern Washington.) Although some high lakes are ice-free in May, most clear in late June and July. These same lakes begin to freeze anytime from early October on, depending on elevation, exposure and weather.

Equipment

Fishing vies for attention with Sloan Peak in the Monte Cristo area of Snohomish County.

For the most part, fishing high lakes can be done effectively using the same techniques that are productive in low lakes. One major difference between lowland and high lakes is water clarity. The gin-clear water of high lakes requires light leader tippets (usually 4 pound test or less) and a stalking approach as the fish can see out of the lakes extremely well.

Fly fishing can be very effective in the high lakes under many weather conditions. Back-casting room is often a problem, though, unless you go to the effort to bring in a small raft or float tube. Typical fly rods and reels that you would use in low lakes or streams will work, with the main concern being rod length when broken down while hiking. Medium-weight lines (5-7 wt.) will handle most conditions for casting and presentation, while long leaders (12’+) work better than short ones. Leader tippets should be as small as possible, while maintaining 2-3 pounds breaking strength. Where fly-casting is impractical, tossing flies with a light spinning outfit and casting bubble can be equally productive.

Standard spinning rods and reels can be used very effectively to fish with spinners and spoons or with bait. Light or ultra-light weight tackle is recommended. A vest or small tackle box containing a dozen or more spoons and spinners of different sizes and color patterns will usually be sufficient. For bait fishing you should obtain egg hooks in sizes 10-12, bobbers or bubbles for weight and flotation, and slip-sinkers plus split shot.

Backpacking rods that break down to short lengths to fit within a typical pack are available at most sporting goods or hiking equipment stores. Some backpacking rods will double as spinning or fly rods fairly well. Very little rod effectiveness is sacrificed for spinning or bait-casting, but most combination rods are only moderately good (at best) for fly fishing. Trolling flies can be easily done with these outfits, or casting the fly-and-bubble combination mentioned above.

Trolling requires a raft, float tube or similar device. Medium-priced inflatable vinyl rafts are available at many sporting goods outlets. A one-person raft may weigh about 5-7 pounds and have moderate durability (two to four years). More expensive rafts are available, providing greater durability, carrying capacity and less weight. Be sure to wear additional flotation (a PFD) while in a raft or other water craft, as a puncture in mid-lake creates a sinking feeling and a substantial risk of hypothermia and drowning. This is especially serious as mountain lakes are very cold. Don’t count on swimming far in water that’s typically less than 50 degrees.

Other potentially valuable gear includes: needle-nose pliers, hemostat or other gripping device for removing hooks; line clippers; knife; point-and-shoot camera; sunscreen; insect repellant; first-aid kit; and all standard hiking safety gear. (See the section below titled “Safety.”)

Techniques

Fishing from shore can be very productive. Most fish feed in the shallower water close to shore where insect activity, both terrestrial and aquatic, is highest.

Bait-fishing can be effective, using worms, eggs, artificial paste baits, or combinations. Bait can be dangled downward from a floating bobber or can float upward from a slip-sinker, both of which provide weight to cast the bait outward from shore.

Bait-fishing should only be done when you plan to keep the fish you catch, since the fish tend to swallow the bait and hook, making injury-free release much harder. This is why fish caught while using bait count as part of your daily limit, whether or not you keep them. Also check to make sure bait is legal where you’re planning to fish; some lakes have selective fishery regulations or other quality rules designed to improve survival and growth of fish.

Lures, mainly spinners or spoons, can be very effective trolled or cast, especially for cutthroat. Treble hooks can be easily replaced with single hooks and remain effective at catching fish. Releasing a fish from a single-hook spoon or spinner is relatively straightforward and easy, while it can get awkward from a treble-hook. To make release even easier and increase liklihood of survival of the fish, pinch or file down the barb or barbs.

Fly-fishing can be nearly as effective as bait-fishing. Use dry fly patterns when fish are surface feeding, and nymph, leech or other subsurface patterns when little feeding activity is apparent. Effective dry patterns include black gnat, mosquito, Adams, blue dun, black ant, and deer-hair caddis. Wet patterns of choice include wooly worms, chironomids (TDC’s), hare’s ears, and carey specials.

Timing

Spectacular scenery at Snow Lake in King County

The most effective times to fish are generally early in the morning or late in the afternoon. Midday can be slow, especially in sunny weather. Exceptions are usually related to weather and insect activity. During midday periods, when fish aren’t rising, the more effective approach is to use bait or lures near the lake bottom, 50-150 feet from shore.

Insect hatches can produce visible feeding activity at any time. If there is a single type of insect hatching, trout may be very selective and hard to catch with general fly patterns and lures. At other times, trout may be slurping a variety of insects from the surface film. A general pattern fished dead slow or cast to rises may be effective.

Weather has a significant influence on fish and insect activity. If you are heading into your favorite high lake for fishing, it’s late summer, the lakes have been ice-free for several weeks, but it’s been warm for several days and then cools off (10-20 degrees) just before the weekend, get set for some slow fishing. Insect activity usually rises and falls with temperature, and trout feeding activity seems to do the same. Another bad time is when it has been very warm for several days and the trout have gorged themselves on insects and aren’t interested in another bite, however pretty your lure. If your trip coincides with the second or third day of a warming trend, you are likely to have good fishing opportunity at some of the time on your trip. But if the weather turns foul, the fishing usually does likewise.

Safety

The keys to a safe and enjoyable high country fishing adventure are preparedness and a healthy respect for nature. Keep the following in mind when planning your trip:

Solitude is great, but the buddy system is much safer, especially off-trail. Always tell someone where you’re going and when you intend to return.

Mountain lakes are too cold to do much swimming in. Check frequently for leaks in rafts. Use an inflatable sleeping pad as insulation under you and as a backup flotation device. Wear a personal floatation device; some PFD designs, such as slim “horse collar” types and inflatable suspenders, are relatively unobtrusive.

Even for day trips, carry raingear, warm clothes, survival blanket, compass, map, extra food, backpacking stove and flashlight, especially when off-trail.

Never walk on a “frozen” lake. The freezing pattern is erratic, so a lake may have some supporting ice below the surface snow/slush in one spot, but be unsupported in another. For this reason, high lakes are generally unsuitable for ice fishing, particularly in Western Washington.

Suggested Lakes

The high lakes listed below are recommended for hiker/anglers who are interested in experiencing trout fishing in the Cascade mountains and foothills. This list is intended as a general guide only. It is by no means complete–nor guaranteed.

Lakes were selected using the combined experience of members of the Washington Hi-Lakers and Trail Blazer clubs and WDFW professional biological staff. These lakes are on maintained trail systems or have road access, and are considered able to withstand the increased fishing pressure that might result from their listing here. They generally have self-sustaining populations of trout, or are regularly stocked by the WDFW. After the county-by-county listing of hike-in lakes is a list of “drive-to” lakes.

These chunky rainbows are typical of what can be produced with proper high lake fishery management.

Several methods are provided to help locate listed lakes. First, an approximate location based on geographic features or trailheads is given. Next are a page number and map coordinates for locating that lake in the Washington Atlas and Gazeteer (DeLorme Mapping Company). Following that, specific township (N) and range (E or W) data are provided, followed by elevation (in feet above mean sea level), both taken from Lakes of Washington, Volumes I and II (Wolcott, 1973). The latest USGS quadrangle maps for the area you intend to visit are usually the most specific and up-to-date source of trail information. U.S. Forest Service district maps are valuable aids for finding lakes and trails that fall within national forests. Specific county maps, such as those produced by the Metsker and Pittmon map companies, are also helpful.

Lastly, species information is provided. Fish species listed are the latest assessments by the review team (see above), but may not be exact or all-inclusive. Fish species and stocking schedules change occasionally because of various biological reasons.

Tables

Material in this document was originally published in SignPost for Northwest Trails, April 1986. It was edited and reprinted by the Department of Wildlife from 1987-1994. This version is adapted from a revision by Gerry Erickson of the Washington State Hi-Lakers, Bob Pfeifer and Susan Ewing of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Did Au Sable Trout Disappear?

Where have the Au Sable River trout gone?
from The Fishing Wire

Spring ushered into northern Michigan an unwelcomed guest in 2018…an extended winter with an unprecedented snowfall in April. When winter finally relented, and anglers were able to get out and enjoy fishing their favorite spots, the DNR Fisheries Division’s Northern Lake Huron Management Unit started getting phone calls from concerned anglers about their lack of success on the North Branch of the Au Sable River.

The unit receives “there are no fish in my lake” calls on a regular basis, and usually they are based on an angler’s couple of days of poor fishing. This year on the North Branch, however, staff were getting calls from professional trout fishing guides who had never complained about the fishing before. They told local staff they were experiencing extremely low catch rates and weren’t seeing the feeding activity they normally would during insect hatches.The North Branch was scheduled for Fisheries Division to conduct population estimates in the late summer at three different sites. However, with the number of anglers reporting startlingly low catch rates of trout, the division decided to conduct electrofishing spot checks on May 30.

To build on the strong partnership in the Au Sable River, Fisheries Division invited several of the guides who informed the department to come and help conduct the electrofishing efforts. The first round of electrofishing spot checks were at places that are surveyed regularly. Shortly after the survey started, it was readily apparent the trout population was down from levels normally seen in late summer.

“Most anglers understand that trout can move fairly large distances, usually seasonally, so making direct comparisons of the survey results occurring at different times of the year should be avoided,” said the Northern Lake Huron Management Unit manager, Dave Borgeson. “Regardless, the decline in the number of fish surveyed at the sites corroborated the angler reports so we decided to conduct four more spot checks at other locations on June 7, and got similar results.

“For some unknown reason, it became clear the trout population in the North Branch had declined from the previous year. There was a lot of head-scratching and hypothesis-sharing regarding the cause of the apparent decline, and some of the angler’s ideas centered on the possibility of mortality due to toxic substances introduced into the stream.

While trout populations can vary widely from year to year for a variety of reasons, Fisheries Division decided to notify the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality of the angler’s observations and the electrofishing results. A working group of concerned anglers, DEQ staff, and Fisheries Division employees Neal Godby and Borgeson teamed up to discuss the status of the stream and plan a strategy for additional information gathering in 2018.The DEQ planned to do some water chemistry work and conduct aquatic invertebrate sampling in the North Branch, Fisheries Division would conduct trout population estimates at three stations on the river, and the angling groups planned to do their annual quantitative aquatic invertebrate sampling as well as cooperate with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a contaminant survey using lipid-based collection gear deployed in the stream.

The DEQ’s Water Resource Division conducted three P51 Habitat and Macroinvertebrate surveys in mid-June and found “All three sites surveyed in June 2018 scored excellent for both habitat and macroinvertebrates. All sites had excellent macroinvertebrate diversity with 37 taxa found at Dam Four, 32 at Twin Bridge Rd., and 31 at the Ford. Of these, 20 taxa at Dam Four, 18 taxa at Twin Bridges, and 15 taxa at the Ford were ephemeroptera, plecoptera, or tricoptera (EPT) taxa indicating excellent water quality.

“The USGS organic chemical sampling results are pending. Fisheries Division electrofishing surveys revealed:
At Twin Bridges the brook trout density and biomass were at the lowest recorded level in the past 30 years, and brown trout density and biomass levels were on par with the past two years.

At Eamon’s Landing the brook trout density was around the long-term average and biomass was on par with the past two years (but low compared with the long-term average).

At Dam 4 the brook trout density was well below average and biomass was at its lowest recorded level in the last 30 years. Brown trout density was about average, but the biomass was well below its average.

“So, what does all this mean?” asked Borgeson. “Do we know why the trout abundance in the North Branch declined substantially? It appears the aquatic invertebrate populations appear to be in good shape, and that non-trout species are in decent numbers. Because of that, contamination or an acute toxin event is not likely the cause. Additionally, trout species are still present albeit in relatively low numbers. So, what else could it be?

“Sometimes trout populations can be impacted by extreme water temperatures. Since the decline occurred after the DNR’s fall survey, and before this summer, warm temperatures do not appear to be the culprit. Last winter, while long, did not have too many of the extremely low temperatures that can greatly affect trout. So, temperature may not have been the primary force impacting the population in this case.

Also, the area of the North Branch was the recipient of some tremendous amounts of precipitation in the fall of 2017, and in the spring of 2018. Many long-time river residents and users reported they have never seen the North Branch so high, even out of its banks. It is known that high flows can impact trout populations, especially those occurring in the spring. Fisheries Division also surveyed some other streams that had markedly lower trout abundances. For example, division crews surveyed the West Branch of the Sturgeon River and they said it was very clear the trout population had declined since 2017. The department also had reports of another small, shallow tributary to the Sturgeon River that had a much lower trout population. A tributary to the Muskegon was surveyed and the population was down noticeably.

Maybe there was a regional phenomenon that affected certain types of streams disproportionately more than others? Could the high flows have been the primary culprit? We probably won’t know with an ironclad degree of certainty, but we can make some conclusions from this situation: It occurred between early fall 2017 and May 2018. It doesn’t appear to be a toxic event. The relatively large one-year reduction in trout abundance coincided with two extremely high flow events (last fall and this spring). Also, there appears to be enough numbers of young trout in the system that with decent overwinter survival the numbers of catchable fish should improve in the coming years.

“Overall, productivity in the North Branch has declined from the 1960’s and 1970’s, and the trout population reflects that decline,” explained Borgeson. “Perhaps this has to do with the long-term effects of the Clean Water Act. Those of us old timers remember the good ‘ol days when there were more brook trout in the stream. Maybe the rooted vegetation that used to be more abundant in the North Branch provided those young trout enough cover to survive better to older ages. When a trout population begins with more 1 and 2-year-old fish, then it usually ends up with more 2 and 3-year-old trout. In the past 30 years the stream’s trout population has varied around a new lower average biomass.

“This year on the North Branch of the Au Sable highlights the importance of having a suite of streams where status and trends surveys are conducted. They help put the trout population variability of one stream in a greater context. That is, are there regional trends in all sampled streams, in certain types of streams, or is there a stream that had a unique event occur?It also points to the importance of strong working relationships with local Fisheries Division staff, concerned anglers, and other agencies or groups that can bring resources to the table to solve complex problems. Maybe we won’t always have all the simple answers, but collectively we can learn together and that is better for making informed decisions on the resource. With that collective knowledge base, the DNR and its partners will be much better informed in the future, with a greater ability to parcel out those factors that combine to shape the trout populations in Michigan streams.

Plugging for the Chetco River’s Giant Salmon

How Can I Catch Salmon Plugging for the Chetco River’s Giant Salmon

By Buzz Ramsey for Yakima Bait
from The Fishing Wire

If you crave big fall chinook, one that might tip the scales at 50 pounds or more, now would be a good time to plan a trip to Oregon’s Chetco River. Located on Oregon’s southern coast (near Brookings) the Chetco hosts a run of fall chinook that peaks in early to mid November, making it a destination for anglers from throughout the Northwest and beyond.

According to professional-fishing-guide Andy Martin of Wild Rivers Fishing, 206-388-8988, the majority of the salmon returning to the Chetco River consist of 4-year old chinook which average 20-to-25 pounds. However, twenty percent of each out-migrating year class of salmon return as 5-year old fish that average 35-to-40 pounds; with some bouncing the scale at 50 pounds or more. For example, while guiding clients on the Chetco River over the last dozen years Andy has netted at least one salmon at, approaching or above 50 pounds each and every season. His largest to date is a 65-pound monster taken during the later portion of the 2011 season.

Originating in the Siskiyou National Forest, the Chetco flows for 55 miles before reaching the Pacific Ocean. The Chetco is unlike many other Pacific Northwest rivers as there are no dams obstructing the salmons’ pathway to their spawning sanctuary.

The river hosts a strong, self-sustaining wild run of fall chinook that according to ODFW can number as high as 15,000 returning adults. In addition, the Department of Fish and Wildlife supplements the wild run with an additional 125,000 fingerling size chinook that are liberated in the lower river. Being of hatchery origin these fish are fin-clipped prior to release and tend to stage low in the river, where released, upon their return as adults.

The Chetco offers excellent access for bank anglers thanks to the City of Brookings and state of Oregon owning a large section of the lower river. Called Social Security Bar, this nearly two mile stretch offers free public access to bank-bound anglers that plunk Spin-N-Glo lures, sometimes in combination with bait, from shore when the river is running 3,500 CFS or higher, and drift and float fish for salmon when the water is lower.

In addition, the Chetco offers drift boat anglers’ excellent access with several put-in and take-out sites available. The most popular drift is from Lobe Park to Social Security Bar, a 5-to-6 mile float, which according to Andy Martin contains about 15 deep salmon holes. The next launch site is a private, pay-to-play launch called Ice Box. There are two launch sites above Ice Box that are located within the National Forest and go by the name of Miller Bar and Nook Bar. Nook Bar is the upper most launch and marks the upper deadline for the keeping of salmon.

The two fishing methods that dominate the drift boat fishery include back-bouncing bait and back-trolling plugs. Salmon egg clusters rigged in combination with a Corky Drifter are what the back bouncing crowd use. According to Andy Martin, the most popular Corky colors on the Chetco include rocket-red and green-chartreuse. When the water is on the high side those bouncing bait will switch out their Corky for a Spin-N-Glo threaded on their leader above a bearing bead and baited hook. A selection of 1-1/2 to 4 ounce sinkers is what’s needed if you are planning to back-bounce bait on the Chetco.

The other popular fishing technique is to back-troll salmon plugs. According to Andy Martin, salmon size plugs work especially well on the Chetco and account for the majority of the giant salmon taken in his boat. The plugs Andy employs most often are the 4.0 through 5.0 sizes Mag Lip, size M-2 FlatFish, and 5.5 Hawg Nose FlatFish. When it comes to determining what size plug to choose, it’s all about the water conditions.

The Chetco, like other rivers up and down the coast, is heavily influenced by rainfall. It’s the onslaught of storms originating over the Pacific and later hitting the coast that causes rivers to rise and subsequently drop when the rain subsides. Salmon, smelling the fresh water, migrate into rivers from the ocean each time the rivers come up and bite best as water levels drop and clear from each rain storm. A big rain event can make the Chetco River unfishable and not clear enough to fish for four or five days. When the water first drops and clears is when the catching is at its best.

According to Andy, the ideal height for the Chetco is 3,000 CFS (Cubic Feet per Second) and the river is considered low when it drops down to 1,200 CFS or less.

What Andy has learned over his many years of guiding is that he can catch salmon using plugs when the river is as high as 5,000 or at times even 6,000 CFS, providing the water is clear enough to see two feet or more into it. When the Chetco is dropping from a high water event, it’s the clarity of the water Andy closely watches.

This is a time when he employs the large salmon plugs that dive deep like the Hawg Nose or 5.0 size Mag Lip. The fast actions these plugs provide when back-trolled not only catch fish but their frantic action can shake the leaves off that strong winds can sometimes blow into the river. As the river continues to drop and clear, all the way down to 1,200 CFS, Andy reduces his plug sizes down to an M-2 size FlatFish and/or 4.0 size Mag Lip.

Although you can take your own drift boat, fully guided salmon fishing trips are available from guides should you decide to try your salmon luck from a boat. While the number of guides residing in Brooking is somewhat limited, this popular fishery draws professional guides from surrounding towns like Grants Pass, Medford and Gold Beach. There are several guides from California that work the Chetco too, so don’t limit your guide search to just the Brookings area.

The chinook limit on the Chetco is currently one salmon per day, and no more than five per year. Current regulations require you to stop fishing after catching your one adult salmon. And while your daily limit can include up to five jack salmon (salmon measuring between 15 and 24 inches) you must catch them prior to retaining an adult salmon.

Tackle, bait, shuttles, and fishing info can be obtained at Riverside Market, 541-661-3213, which is located along the lower Chetco near Social Security Bar.

Pacific Salmon Fishing in Lake Ontario Tributaries

Tipf for Pacific Salmon Fishing in Lake Ontario Tributaries

Editor’s Note: Here’s a great guide to the run of jumbo salmon now entering the rivers of New York from Lake Ontario, from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
from The Fishing Wire

The two species of Pacific Salmon found in Lake Ontario are the Chinook and coho salmon. Chinook salmon grow larger and are more heavily stocked then the coho, with approximately 1.7 million Chinook salmon and 250,000 coho salmon stocked annually in Lake Ontario and its tributaries by New York State. When salmon return to these tributaries in two to three years as adults, they weigh 8 to 30 pounds and offer a unique and exciting fishing experience.

Typically, the tributary fishing for Chinook and coho salmon begins in early-September and runs through early-November, with the peak often occurring during the first two weeks of October. Having success with these hard fighting fish requires using the right gear, flies, baits, lures and then presenting them in the most effective manner. Safety is also a concern when heading to these waters as most of them are large and can be difficult to wade in. Each of these topics will be discussed in more detail below to help get you started chasing these hard fighting fish.

Where to Go

Some of the more popular salmon fishing tributaries are:

Black River (PDF) (511 KB)
South Sandy Creek (PDF) (592 KB)
Salmon River
Oswego River
Sterling Creek
Genesee River (PDF) (601 KB)
Sandy Creek (PDF) (661 KB)
Oak Orchard Creek (PDF) (485 KB)
Eighteen Mile Creek
Lower Niagara River

Coho and Chinook Salmon

Coho and Chinook salmon are spawned at the Salmon River Hatchery during the month of October. The eggs hatch out in late November through December. Chinooks are stocked as 3 inch fingerlings in May or June. Besides shore stocking, some of the salmon are also pen stocked. Pen stocking is a cooperative effort between the NYSDEC and area sportsman groups. Pen stocking allows recently stocked fish a chance to acclimate to their new surroundings and offers some protection from predators. Fish and feed are provided from the NYSDEC Salmon River Fish Hatchery while the sportsmen’s groups build and maintain the pens and feed and take care of the fish for approximately 3 weeks. The fish are subsequently released into the stream or bay. This pen stocking program has been very successful. Shortly after stocking, salmon “smolt” imprint on the scent of the stream before migrating downstream to the lake. Coho are stocked as either pre-smolt fall fingerlings at 10 months of age (4½ inches long) or as 6 inch yearlings at 16 months of age. The life history of the coho salmon requires that they stay in the streams for at least one year before moving down to the lake. Once they reach the lake, salmon grow rapidly on a diet of alewives. Chinook salmon returning to the rivers where they were stocked range in age from 1 to 4 years. Age 2 and 3 fish make up 90% of the run and will weigh between 15-25 pounds. Mature coho salmon return to spawn as age 2 fish and will average 8-10 pounds.

Maturing Pacific salmon begin to “stage” off the river mouths from mid-to-late August. By early September some fish have usually started to trickle into the tributaries. The peak of the run when the best stream fishing occurs is actually a rather short 4 week period. On rivers whose flows are controlled by hydropower dams, such as the Salmon and Oswego, this peak period normally occurs from mid-September through mid-October. On other salmon streams across the state the timing of the runs is more dependent on rainfall. Generally salmon will enter these streams somewhat later with the peak occurring in mid-October. Once Chinook and coho salmon enter the streams, they are no longer feeding. Their bodies are undergoing rapid physiological changes and their sole purpose left in life is to spawn. While they are not actively feeding, they do exhibit several behaviors which make them vulnerable to traditional sport fishing techniques. One of these behaviors is aggression or territoriality, and another is their attraction to fish eggs or egg shaped lures.

Equipment

Fly Fishing

Fly rods of 9-10 feet long for line weights of 7, 8, or 9 work well for salmon. Reels with a smooth disc drag are recommended to stop runs and tire the fish. Reels should have large enough capacity to hold at least 150 yards of 20 pound test backing. The backing should be fluorescent colored so you can see where the fish is running and so other anglers can see you have a fish on. Full floating lines are best as they allow better line control. Leaders are normally in the 8-12 foot range. For the butt section use a 6-8 foot section of 10-15 pound test line. At the end of this attach a small black barrel swivel. This serves as an attachment point for the tippet section and a dropper for split shot. The tippet section should be 2-3 feet of 6-10 pound test, depending on conditions.
Spin Fishing

A medium or medium heavy action graphite rod 8-9 feet long will allow you to keep line off the water, detect the strikes and play the large fish effectively. Reels should have a smooth drag and the line capacity of at least 200 yards of 12-15 pound test line. A 2-3 foot leader of 8-12 pound test line is also recommended though not required. Using a leader will save you some tackle and time. The leader being a lighter pound test will break, theoretically, before your main line when snagged. That way you only lose your fly or bait and save your weight

Effective Flies and Baits
Flies

Three basic types of flies are used to catch Pacific salmon when they are in the rivers. These are egg imitations, wet fly/streamers, and stonefly/nymphs. Tie your flies with materials that have a lot of action, color, and flash to attract a salmon’s attention and aggravate it into striking. Larger size flies work better earlier in the run in the lower sections of the river. Switch to smaller sizes when fishing for salmon that have been in the river for several days or in the upper areas. Heavy fishing pressure or low clear water would also call for smaller flies and lighter leaders. Use patterns that are quick and simple to tie because you will be losing a lot during a day’s fishing both on the bottom and fish that break off. Fly fishing is one of the most successful methods of catching Pacific salmon because of the unlimited combinations of colors, shapes, and sizes that can be created in the fly.

Some wet fly/streamers patterns to try are: Wooly Buggers hook sizes #2-8 in black, olive, purple, chartreuse, flame or orange; Mickey Finn sizes #2-8; black bear green butt sizes #4-10; comet style flies sizes #2-10; and marabou streamers in various hot colors. Good egg imitations are glo-bugs or estaz eggs hook sizes #6-8 in chartreuse, flame, orange or hot pink. Both work well and are quick and easy to tie. You can also try stonefly/nymphs size #4-10. Carry some tied with hot colored flashy materials like estaz and krystal flash, as well as more natural colors like black and brown.

Eggs

Salmon eggs are one of the top producers, and both preserved skein eggs or loose eggs, tied into sacks the size of a dime or nickel with nylon mesh, are fished dead drifted through runs and pools. Artificial eggs come in a wide variety of styles and colors with some being impregnated with scents. Other good egg imitators are 1-2″ twister tails or tube jigs, small pieces of sponge, and plastic beads.

Presentation

Pacific salmon are fish that stay on or near the river bottom as they migrate upstream. You want your bait or lure to pass at eye level to the fish just off the bottom. They generally will not move up in the water column any distance to strike a bait. Salmon often show their presence by porpoising or rolling on the surface of the stream. It is not understood why they do this but they rarely strike when they are surfacing so concentrate on keeping your lure near the bottom. If you fish a large pool, concentrate on either the head or the tail-out. Deep slots or runs along banks, behind logs, or boulders that break the current are other places to try. Another area where salmon seem to strike well is in the upper spawning areas of a river. Once the Chinook and coho have established nests or “redds,” they become very aggressive and territorial. This is especially true of the males which fight each other and drive off young trout or minnows invading their space.
For the greatest success, you want your fly, lure, or bait to be presented in the first 6-18 inches of water off the bottom. To do this properly, you will almost always have to add weight to your line. The secret to success is to use only the minimum amount of weight necessary to keep your bait in that narrow band of water just off the bottom. Too much weight causes your rig to hang up on the bottom, resulting in lost tackle, a loss of sensitivity which limits your ability to sense when a salmon has hit your bait, your rig to drift unnaturally, and will often spook the fish. Not enough weight will cause your lure or bait to float by too high in the water column where it will not interest the salmon. Use removable split-shot sinker and carry at least 3 or 4 different sizes and constantly adjust the amount of weight depending on the type of water you are fishing. As your rig drifts downstream, it should only occasionally tap the bottom. Rarely will salmon smash the fly or bait or strike hard. Often the fish just grabs the fly or bait in its mouth, and your line will simply stop, hesitate, or dart forward slightly. There are two basic methods of presenting a fly, bait, or lure to a salmon. One of these is the “dead-drift” and the other is the “wet-fly swing.” These methods can be used with either fly fishing or spinning tackle.

The Dead-Drift

The basic aspect of this method is getting your fly or bait to drift along as naturally as possible in the current just off the river bottom. You can use egg flies, stoneflies, spawn sacks, or artificial eggs. It is an effective method in pools, runs, or spawning riffles. Position yourself across from, or across and slightly upstream from, where you can see salmon or where you think they are. Move as close to the fish as possible without spooking them. Cast up and across stream at a 45 degree angle. Have just enough weight on your line or leader to get the bait down to be near the bottom 15 inches of water. As your rig drifts back towards you, raise your rod towards the vertical position to minimize the amount of line on the water. When the rig has drifted down to directly opposite your position, your rod should be almost vertical. As the rig passes you, turn your upper body to follow the drift and slowly lower the rod until the line and rig are directly below you. During the drift, concentrate on the point where your line enters the water and feel with the line and rod tip. Watch for any hesitation, upstream movement, or tug on the line. Using as little weight on the line as is necessary and as light a pound test line as possible gives you the best sensitivity to detect the take of a salmon.

The Wet-Fly Swing

This method works best in areas of moderate current speed such as runs or riffles. You can use streamers or wet flies. Position yourself upstream from where you can see the salmon or where you think they are holding. Make your cast directly across or across and slightly upstream. The object is to get your lure to sink until it is just off bottom, drift downstream, and then swing in an arc passing directly in front of the fish at eye level. The streamer imitates a small fish intruding into the salmon’s territory and triggers an aggressive response or territorial defense. This is especially true when the salmon are on a spawning bed. Often it requires many casts, each passing the lure in front of the fish, before it becomes annoyed enough to strike

Fighting and Landing Salmon

After the hook-up, get all your loose line back on the reel as soon as possible. On the first long run, hold the rod tip up, and let the reel’s drag do the work. It should be set tight enough to put some pressure on the fish but not strong enough to break your leader. After the initial run, pressure the fish as much as you can. If the salmon makes a long run downstream, you usually have to follow it and try to get below it. You cannot drag a large fish back up river. The ideal situation is when the fish is running upstream where it will be fighting both the current and your drag. Chinook salmon can be landed by grabbing the narrow area just forward of the tail. With a coho you’ll have to wear a wool glove or the fish will slip out of your grasp. The best situation would be to have a partner stand below the fish with a wide mouth net. Try to be a good sportsman and be courteous to others. If a fellow angler hooks a salmon nearby, be prepared to reel in and step back out of the way.

Safety

Many of the rivers that have Pacific salmon runs can be dangerous to wade in. Rapidly rising water levels, slippery rocks, deep drop-offs, and strong currents are all things the angler should be on the look-out for. The sight of a school of huge salmon moving past has been known to cause some fishermen to lose all caution and get themselves in trouble. To make your trip safer and more enjoyable always follow these precautions:

Wear spiked footwear to insure firm footing.
Carry a wading staff.
Wear polarized sunglasses to detect wading hazards and spot fish.
Wear a wader belt or flotation vest.
Be cautious and don’t cross the river if you are unsure of depth or speed of the current.

Regulations

For current regulations specific to the tributary you are fishing, please review your Great Lakes and Tributary Regulations section of your fishing guide.

Wild vs. Stocked

Natural reproduction does take place in some of the tributaries and thanks to the purchase of an automated fish marking trailer (Autofish) in 2008 we are starting to understand to what extent this adds to the fishery. The Autofish is capable of adipose clipping and/or applying coded wire tags (CWTs) to salmon and trout at high speed and accuracy. To determine the proportions of wild and hatchery Chinook salmon in Lake Ontario, all Chinook salmon stocked by New York and Ontario from 2008-2011 were marked with an adipose fin clip. Percentages of wild Chinook salmon in Lake Ontario varied by year class and age, and among regions from 2009-2015. The wild study was completed in 2015 and overall, wild Chinook were an important component of the Lake Ontario fishery averaging 47% of the age 2 & 3 Chinooks harvested in the lake.

The Salmon River in Oswego County is, by far, the most famous New York stream for Pacific salmon fishing. It is stocked more heavily than any other stream to insure that enough fish make it back to the Salmon River Fish Hatchery in Altmar for spawning and egg collection. The Salmon River also has a high percentage of wild Chinook salmon. The estimated percent of wild Chinook salmon in the Salmon River, also varied by year during the marking study, but overall approximately 70% of angler-caught Chinook salmon (excluding age-1) are believed to be wild.

For more information on Lake Ontario research, please view Lake Ontario Fisheries Unit Reports.

Steelhead Survival of Catch and Release Angling Tips

Steelhead Survival of Catch and Release Angling
Written by Will Lubenau, University of Idaho
from The Fishing Wire

Safely release steelhead


The second field season for the steelhead tagging study being conducted in Idaho has officially started. Tagging at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River began on July 2, 2020. As of July 19th, 205 steelhead have already been tagged and released as part of this research to evaluate how many wild and hatchery steelhead are caught by anglers, and how often each year.

For the second field season, the goal is to tag a total of 2,000 steelhead; 1,000 adipose-intact fish and 1,000 adipose-clipped fish so obviously we are just getting started with our second season. Anglers will be asked to examine all fish caught for a tag that is located near the dorsal fin. To report a tagged fish, please go to https://idfg.idaho.gov/fish/tag/add. Those who return a tag to Idaho DFG get a reward.

Researchers at the University of Idaho have been taking our first look at the data from the first season of the steelhead study and are learning some interesting things. For additional information on preliminary study results, you can read an article recently published in the Lewiston Tribune.

There are two primary objectives to this study., 1) estimate how many wild steelhead are caught in Idaho’s steelhead fisheries and 2) take a closer look at how well steelhead survive being caught and released. These are important to understand for Idaho’s steelhead fisheries since we manage for both hatchery fish harvest opportunity and wild fish recovery as part of the fishery structure.

Currently, IDFG uses hatchery fish to estimate how many wild fish are caught in the state. IDFG assumes hatchery and wild fish are encountered by anglers at an equal rate. For example, if based on IDFG surveys it is estimated that 40% of hatchery fish were encountered by anglers, then it is assumed that 40% of our wild fish were also encountered by anglers. This study was set up to test if that assumption was accurate.

We tagged 878 wild steelhead at Lower Granite Dam last year. Of the 878 fish, 200 were caught and reported by anglers. However, we recognize that some tags are caught and not reported so it is important to account for non-reporting in our estimates. Since some of the tags had rewards associated with them, we can use that to estimate how many tags were caught and not reported. By combining the tag reports with an estimate of how many tags were caught and not reported, we get an idea of how many wild fish were encountered.

The main findings so far.

In the first year of the study, the encounter rate for Idaho’s wild fish was about 35% while the hatchery fish encounter rate was about 40% to 45%. With wild steelhead conservation being a primary concern for IDFG, this is good news because it means the wild steelhead encounter rate estimated in the past may have been conservative.

To estimate survival of caught-and-released wild fish, we used detections from PIT tag arrays (click here to learn more), fish weirs (click here to learn more), and hatcheries to document survival of our study fish. About 65% of the wild fish reported as caught were detected after capture and known to have survived while about 62% of fish not reported as caught were detected and known to have survived. Preliminarily, the nearly equal rates of detection for fish reported as caught and fish not reported as caught suggest that catch-and-release angling has little influence on steelhead survival.

For more information on Wild salmon and steelhead click here.

Tips to Catch More Trout This Winter


Dedicated fly-anglers don’t stop fishing in the winter. Instead they adjust their tactics to the colder conditions.

Popular trout rivers take on a different character in winter. The barren landscape reveals a different sort of beauty, the crowds diminish and the fishing becomes more challenging.

For some, it may be enough “to just be there.” But if your plans include actually catching a fish, here are seven tips that may help improve your chances.

1. Go small and light. Clear, slow water, smaller insects and wary fish call for smaller flies and lighter tippet than you might use the rest of the year.Downsize your flies. A dominate food source for trout in the winter are teeny, tiny midges that are best mimicked by teeny, tiny flies – like size 16 and smaller.Lighten your tippet. If you normally fish 4X, switch to 5X. This will let the smaller flies move more naturally, and avoid spooking fish hanging out in slower waters – where they have more time to scrutinize your fly.

2. Hope for dry fly action but plan to nymph. Winter fly-fishing is a nymphing show. Consider a double-nymph rig with a smaller midge pattern on top and a weighted stonefly below, to help keep your flies near the bottom of the river.

But also be prepared for the occasional hatch with a selection of Griffith’s gnats and small blue wing olives.

3. Look for trout in slower waters. Trout metabolism slows in the winter. They’re eating less and looking for ways to conserve energy, like getting out of the heavier currents into quieter waters.


Back eddies, off-channel areas, and the inside of current seams can all be places to look for winter trout.

4. Cover the water thoroughly. A fish won’t move far to take a fly (slower metabolism and all that), so you’ll want to put your fly right in front of its nose. Cover the water methodically to increase your changes of hitting a fish. 

5. Sleep in. There’s no need to hit the water at daylight when it comes to winter trout fishing. The best fishing will be during the warmest parts of the day – late morning to mid-afternoon. So follow your Mother’s advice and take time to eat a good breakfast before you go.

6. Follow these safety precautions:
Travel safely. Travel in the winter can by dicey so be prepared for bad weather and bad roads. Let someone know where you’re going and when you’ll be back. And remember to check in when you get home.
Consider using a wading staff. Snow and/or ice can make wading even trickier. And winter is not the time of year you want to be falling in the water.
Beware of hypothermia. If you do fall in the water, and it happens, you’ll need to get warm and dry as quickly as possible. Carry a change of dry clothes and hot beverages, or a way to make them.
7. Lower….er, adjust your expectations. Winter trout fishing is about being outside, enjoying the solitude and challenging your fishing skills. It’s not about catching a lot of trout. You’ve got just a few good hours to chase finicky fish – learn to appreciate one- or two-fish days for what they are. Plenty of time to catch loads of fish later in the year.

Some of your best bets for catching native redband trout this winter in Oregon include the lower Deschutes, Crooked, Metolius, Fall, Klamath, Blitzen and Owyhee rivers. For the latest fishing updates for these rivers, check out the weekly Recreation Report.

From Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

Chattooga River Conservation for Trout

Text by Greg Lucas
Photos by Taylor Main

from The Fishing WireWatching an experienced team of fisheries biologists and volunteers work with a helicopter pilot to fill and drop brailer bags of trout in a remote river is a little bit like experiencing a ballet — lots of moving parts have to come together with just the right timing to make it all work.

Chattooga, Wild and Scenic River. The very words conjure up all sorts of images. If you have done a bit of whitewater paddling in the region, the Chattooga’s roaring sound pouring over and around boulders is sweet music to your ears. It is one of the longest and most spectacular free-flowing mountain rivers in the Southeast, cascading some 50 miles from its headwaters in North Carolina to the state line between South Carolina and Georgia.

But if you are a fly fisherman, or fisherwoman, or, heck, fly ANGLER, then you know the upper reaches of the Chattooga River as something special, particularly in the State of South Carolina, where we are not as blessed with trout waters as our neighboring states of Georgia and North Carolina. For it is a place where an angler can get lost in thought, lost in the music and rhythms of a river that is truly Wild and Scenic, like no other in the Palmetto State.

And thanks to an amazing partnership between the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR), the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, the U.S. Forest Service, and Trout Unlimited, large numbers of rainbow, brook and brown trout are stocked in the upper portions of the Chattooga River once a year, a helicopter gently laying them in backcountry areas too remote to easily be reached by vehicle. On Nov. 2, an 11-mile backcountry reach of the Chattooga River was stocked.

The Chattooga, which for a good distance forms the border between South Carolina and Georgia, was the United States’ first Wild and Scenic River, designated as such in 1974. The Wild and Scenic designation resulted in the closure of most of the access roads used for trout stocking in this 11-mile section, and that’s the reason the helicopter stocking effort started.

The first helicopter trout stockings of this part of the Chattooga began about 50 years ago, and this program has been refined considerably over time. The Chauga River in Oconee was similarly stocked with trout by helicopter on the next day, Nov. 3.

“We want trout anglers to have the experience of fishing in this remote and beautiful Wild and Scenic River,” said Dan Rankin, SCDNR Upstate regional fisheries biologist. “But we also want to give them a reasonable chance for success.”

The trout fishery in this 11-mile segment of the Chattooga River is largely supported by stocking hatchery trout reared by SCDNR at Walhalla State Fish Hatchery, and by Georgia DNR at Burton State Hatchery.Trout begin their journey in an aerated truck, then are transferred to a helicopter “bucket” for stocking.

These partner agencies and organizations—SCDNR, U.S. Forest Service, Georgia DNR and Trout Unlimited–have worked together as the “Chattooga River Fisheries Coalition” since 1986 to improve the trout fishery.

“We are stocking two different ‘management units’ of the Chattooga River by helicopter,” said Rankin. “One two-and-a-half-mile reach is the ‘Delayed Harvest’ area, and the eight-and-a-half-mile upper reach of the ‘Rock Gorge/Big Bend’ area has different regulations from the Delayed Harvest Area.”

Delayed Harvest, according to Rankin, is a “fish-for-fun” reach where catch-and-release with single-hook artificial lures is required Nov. 1–May 14 of each year. This stretch reverts to general fishing regulations (5 trout daily limit, no tackle restrictions) from May 15-Oct. 31. The helicopter stocked about 2,500 adult trout (10-plus inches) of rainbow, brown, and brook trout in this section.

The Rock Gorge section of the Chattooga River, which is considered a backcountry area, has no tackle restrictions and a 5-trout daily limit year-round. During the Nov. 2 helicopter stocking, SCDNR stocked 15,000 sub-adult (6-inch) brown trout and 1,000 adult brown trout (10-plus inch) in this segment. Georgia DNR will helicopter stock about 10,000 rainbow trout at a later date.

“The idea,” Rankin said, “is that some of these smaller brown trout, and then later the rainbow trout from Georgia DNR, will survive next summer and grow out to a nice size for anglers.”

Watching the gathering of equipment at Russell Bottoms, alongside SC 28 just before the bridge that leads to Georgia, is quite a spectacle. Dozens of trucks are lined up in a row, with people alternately running helter-skelter around the field (when the helicopter sets down the “Bambi Bucket,” to be filled with trout) and then standing around for long chunks of time while the chopper delivers its load to a remote section of the Chattooga River. Scenes like this are likely the genesis of the phrase “Hurry Up And Wait,” which is so appropriate for any gathering of government employees, whether it be fisheries biologists or infantry soldiers.

Completing the scene is that everyone is wearing many articles of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), which includes a hard hat, eye protection, face coverings/masks, closed-toe shoes (leather boots preferable), gloves, and green and yellow fire-resistant Nomex pants and shirts.

The Forest Service is very diligent about PPE, not surprisingly, since being in close proximity to a helicopter is dangerous work. There is zero cell coverage at the site, which makes coordination a real challenge.The helicopter makes quick work of ferrying the load of trout to the remote stretches of the river.

The helicopter was already on the scene when SCDNR videographer/photographer Taylor Main and I arrived around 8:20 a.m. Keith Whalen, Forest Service fisheries biologist, got Taylor suited up in all the appropriate PPE, and after the safety briefing (mandatory if you are going to get near the helicopter while the fish are being loaded), Taylor began what would be many hours of photography and videography. Over and over, she captured SCDNR Freshwater Fisheries staff netting trout from the hatchery truck into two 50-gallon plastic buckets, then carrying them to the helicopter’s “Bambi Bucket,” which was at the end of a 150-foot line. The bucket was already “watered,” and SCDNR staff poured the trout into the bucket, the chopper lifted off, and away it went.

The trout are bound for the Wild and Scenic Chattooga River, the river that runs through South Carolina and Georgia, and the anglers who will pursue them.